"cause enough pain to discourage an attack," - which is what bear spray is intended to accomplish. In actual use, bear spray seems to work pretty well.

Unless I am hunting, I don't bother bringing a firearm into the field - heavy, very specialized, and potentially dangerous if misused. The ballistics data in this thread forces me realize that my trusty 357 Magnum is no longer state of the art...
Geezer in Chief